The shallow foundation is also known as a stepped Foundation. If the depth of foundation is less than the width of foundation then it is known as Shallow or stepped Foundation. It is a type of building foundation that transfers building loads to the earth very near to the surface, rather than to a subsurface layer or a range of depths as does a deep foundation. The minimum depth of this foundation is 800 mm and maximum depth not to be taken more than 4 meters.
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Type of Shallow Foundation
1. Spread footing
In this type of footing, a base foundation is created which is an RCC member. Above which three steps are created which are done by brickwork. These three steps are not RCC members which are further followed by a wall.
In this type of footing, ground level is maintained above all the steps. The projection of the first step below the wall is ( t + 100 ) mm, here ( t = thickness of wall ). Projection of the second step below the first step is ( t + 200 ) mm, followed by the third step it is ( 2t ) mm. Lastly, the projection between the third step and base foundation is ( t + 400 ) mm. The width of the base foundation is 2( t + 150 ) mm.
2. Raft footing (mat footing)
It covers the whole structure. It provides the stability and strength to the structural member like RCC wall and columns. Above the soil surface, a base is created of any thickness, it is just done to create a base for Raft Foundation. On that base, this raft foundation is constructed. When bearing capacity of a soil is less than, raft or mat footing is used.
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3. Strap footing
In this, if two or more columns are in a row, and these columns are interconnected by a beam. These types of footings are known as strap or cantilever footings.
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